In part one I described how parties trading in individual currencies would need to rely on a record of credit worthiness in the form of a credit history. This would provide evidence of ability to pay but NOT a guarantee of payment. This is because an individual currency would be SOVEREIGN as all currencies are.
Monetary sovereignty means precisely only paying your debts if you want to. This is the definition of sovereignity. Any other definition is a fraud.
To issue money collectively it would be necessary to have a wealth creating authority backing up the currency. In modern capitalist states this role is fulfilled by government.
The risk factor in using any currency is expressed as a differential in price and ultimately as an exchange rate. For those who only have the value of their work to sell the exchange rate amounts to a hidden tax on labour every time you use any currency.
There would be no hidden tax in a personal currency- You cannot tax yourself!
Collective money issued by a group rather than an individual pools the individual risk factors involved in using in that currency. Someone who is dealing with a national currency no longer has to concern himself with the individuals ability to pay but a nations ability to pay. If a person holds a national note in his hand he proves his earning capacity ‘up front’ by virtue of possessing the note.
The value of a currency increases as the credits it obtains and trades in are successfully paid off. This results in a virtuous circle. This increase in value is expressed as a discount value and a use value. Everyone who uses a currency benefits from these discounts (collective purchase of credit).
Benefits are maximised the more people use a currency. These benefits offset the hidden taxation inherent within use of that currency. Any outside body that issues money within an economy necessarily has a negative effect on this process. Credit does this.
With these necessary monetary conditions in mind we can have a look at derivatives and whether they fulfil the conditions necessary to be considered as money. I argue that derivatives are privately issued money. In order to make this money tradable and valuable, the creators of derivatives manufactured a ‘nation’ and an ‘economy’ to go with it!
Any currency needs a credit history
Derivatives manufactured such a history based on the earning power of mortgage holders. In some sense the mortgages themselves were only incidental to the information that was gathered in the process of issuing the mortgages. It was the information about wealth creating power that financial institutions were trading in not the mortgage values.
Any currency needs a wealth creating authority
Democratised money derivatives are supported by a troika of:
Credit Agencies and
(A Mystery Explained
You might have wondered why Monetarist stooges Clinton and Bush chose to support the massive extension of mortgages for the poor. This is usually explained as having something to do with the desire to extend opportunity and home ownership etc. Given the relentless attacks of Monetarists on the poor, especially non-white poor, in the aftermath of the Credit Crunch this hardly seems plausible. However, once you understand the massive increase in mortgages as an opportunity to add another tax to the poor and to strip away the discount benefits that state money brought, you can see why Monetarists like Clinton and Bush were very much in favour of it.)
Any currency pools the individual credit histories of those that use it and therefore pools the risk involved in trading in it
This is the defining characteristic of derivatives as money. Financial institutions took the earning capacity of sub prime lenders and high value lenders and pooled them together creating a hybrid credit risk. The credit rating agencies gave this pooled risk AAA status. Effectively the high value low risk mortgage payers carried the poor sub prime mortgage payers. This is exactly what happens in a national currency.
Any currency is a hidden tax on individual labour power
Democratised money derivatives derived such a tax as this from pooling sub prime mortgages. Unfortunately these taxes on labour on top of the other hidden taxes embodied in the mortgage agreements were too high for sub prime borrowers to support. It was this that led to the Credit Crunch.
The use value and exchange value of any currency increases as debts are paid off
Which is precisely why traders realised derivatives were worthless to the extent that the credit agreements( debts) would not be paid off. This realisation that the credit would not be paid back directly undermined the use value and discount value of derivatives. This was a result of the fact that democratised money derivatives were so new. Given more time they could stabilise and prove out the amount of wealth that they could generate. Unfortunately time ran out when interbank lending rates meant that the exchange rate between state issued money and privately issued democratised money became too great. And this explains QE in Monetarist terms; as a means of buying time for democratised money derivatives to prove themselves. When it is felt that derivatives have successfully rooted themselves as privately issued money, QE will fully end.